Citizens Action Networks

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Accepted Work Doctrine

In construction work, once an owner accepts the work of a contractor, then the contractor shall not be liable to third parties for injury arising from the contractor’s negligent acts under the contract. However, if the injury results from a hidden, imminently dangerous defect which the contractor knows about and the owner is unaware of, then the contractor shall be liable. This doctrine is also known as accepted work doctrine.

Absolute Acceptance

Absolute acceptance is the unqualified assent to liability by the drawee on a bill of exchange. It is an express and positive agreement to pay a bill according to its text or to pay as the bill is written.

Absolute Assignment

Absolute Assignment is the transfer of right to a benefit from one person to another. It gives the recipient—the transferee—the rights that the owner or holder of the property—the transferor—had prior to the transfer. An example is the assignment of ownership of a life insurance policy or the right to retirement benefits.

Absolute Discharge

Absolute discharge is total discharge of a person guilty of a crime in which the accused is deemed to have not been convicted. There will not be any record as to the crime for which an absolute discharge is granted. In an absolute discharge of a crime, full benefit of discharge is immediate. It is different from probation as there is no order laying out conditions as in the case of a probation.

Absolute Immunity

Absolute immunity is a form of legal immunity which is unconditional in nature. Absolute immunity is in contrast to qualified immunity. Qualified immunity, by its very nature, carries with it a set of conditions that must be fulfilled in order for the immunity to be available. Judicial immunity, prosecutorial immunity and divine immunity are examples for absolute immunity.

Absolute Liability

Absolute liability is a tortuous liability. Absolute liability can be imposed on a person even without proof of the person’s negligence. Generally, owners, employers, and manufacturers are brought under the rule of absolute liability. Absolute liability is sometimes called strict liability. Absolute liability arises when a manufacturer of a non-defective product is held absolutely liable for the damage that resulted because of use of the product.

Absolute Estate

An absolute estate is an estate that confers an absolute right to property and which is not subject to limitations, restrictions, or conditions. It is a full and complete estate that cannot be defeated.

Absolute Defense

Absolute defense is a legal concept for a factual circumstance or argument that, if proven, will end the litigation in favor of the defendant. For example: truth of an allegedly libelous statement. Once an absolute defense is pled and proven, it is not subject to mitigation or collateral attack.

Absolute Contraband

Absolute contrabands are goods that are mainly used for war. It includes arms, ammunition, clothing and equipment of a military nature, or materials such as chemicals and certain types of machinery that may be used directly to wage war or be converted into instruments of war. It is different from conditional contrabands, which are goods that can be used for warlike and peaceful purposes. For example, Coal.

Absolute Advantage

Absolute Advantage is the general ability to produce more goods using fewer resources. This idea of absolute advantage is important for trading that occurs between both people and nations. A nation can get an absolute advantage from an advanced level of technology or higher quality resources. For a person, an absolute advantage can result from natural abilities or the acquisition of human capital such as education, training, or experience.

Adam Smith first described the principle of absolute advantage in the context of international trade, using labor as the only input. Since absolute advantage is determined by a simple comparison of labor productivities, it is possible for a party to have no absolute advantage in anything; in that case, according to the theory of absolute advantage, no trade will occur with the other party.It can be contrasted with the concept of comparative advantage which refers to the ability to produce a particular good at a lower opportunity cost.

Absoluta Setencia

Absoluta sententia expositore non indiget is a Latin term. It means ‘an absolute judgment needs no expositor.’ A sentence that is plain and absolute does not need an expositor.

Administer De Bonis Non

Adminstrator De Bonis Non is the Latin term for "administrator of goods not administered." The phrase is used to refer a person appointed by the court to manage the property of a deceased person who has died with a will but where the executor has died or been removed. Adminstrator De Bonis Non is usually appointed by a probate court to complete probate proceedings when the executor or previous administrator cannot finish the job.